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渥太华改革“千疮百孔“的难民审批系统

2010-07-19 07:31:32  来源网站:大中报

Ottawa reforms Canada’s “broken” refugee system

为了修补被加拿大公民和移民部形容为“千疮百孔”的难民庇护制度,联邦政府启动的难民制度改革将加速批准和处理亟需保护的难民申请,加快遣返被拒的假难民。

In an effort to fix an asylum system Canada’s Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration calls “broken,” new reforms are on the way to both expedite the approval and settlement of refugees who need protection, and to speed up the removal of those who do not.

联邦公民和移民部长肯尼在6月底宣布的改革措施,将在未来5年为纳税人节省下约20亿元,这主要是因为那些提出虚假难民申请或来自安全国家的难民申请者将会被快速递解出境。

The reforms, announced at the end of June by Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Jason Kenney, will save taxpayers almost $2 billion dollars over five years, mainly because of the fast-tracking of claimants with fraudulent claims or from countries thought to be safe.

《平衡的难民改革法案》,也就是Bill C-11,在6月29日获得参议院通过,并获得皇室批准。

The Balanced Refugee Reform Act, otherwise known as Bill C-11, was passed by the Senate, and received royal assent on June 29.

肯尼在一份声明中称:“这些改革将为遭受酷刑及迫害的受害者提供更快的保护,并能更快地将那些利用加拿大的慷慨、根本就不是难民的人驱逐出境。”

“These reforms would lead to faster protection for victims of torture and persecution, and faster removal of failed asylum claimants including those who try to abuse Canada’s generosity,” said Minister Kenney in a statement.

“被拒的难民申请人可以在难民申诉部使用新的快速上诉程序,该做法可以在未来5年为纳税人节省下大约18亿元,因为被拒的难民无法在加拿大呆上好几年。”

“Failed asylum claimants would have access to a new fact-based appeal at the Refugee Appeal Division, while taxpayers would save an estimated $1.8 billion over five years because failed claimants would no longer be able to stay in Canada for years.”

在新制度下,难民聆讯将在90内进行,而此前申请难民聆讯需要等候18个月,而对于那些来自指定国家的难民申请人,聆讯将在60天内进行。

Under the new system, a hearing will be held in 90 days, as opposed to 18 months under the old system. And it will now be 60 days for claimants from a designated country of origin.

据公民和移民部称,指定国家是指那些通常不会产生难民,拥有“很好的”人权纪录,提供国家保护或拥有“健全的民主、司法和问责”制度保护公民的国家。

According to the Citizenship and Immigration, designated countries of origin are countries that do not normally produce refugees, have a “robust” human rights record, offer state protection or have “strong democratic, judicial and accountability” systems to protect citizens.

被拒的申请人将可以上诉至移民及难民审核局(IRB)的一个新上诉部门-难民保护署,其将会“加速处理难民申请人是否的确是难民,或者没有理由成为难民。”

Rejected claimants will be able to appeal to a new appeal division of the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB), which now will “expedite the processing of an appeal of a claim that has been determined to be…unfounded by the Refugee Protection Division.”

上诉部门将在120天内作出裁定,但是对来自指定国家的难民申请人以及明显没有理由的难民申请人的上诉,将在30天内作出裁定。

Decisions on appeals will be rendered within 120 days, but appeal decisions for claimants from designated countries of origin and claimants with manifestly unfounded claims will be rendered within 30 days.

明显没有理由的难民申请是指难民审批官员是否认为申请“显然属于欺诈”。

A manifestly unfounded claim is one where the decision maker is of the opinion that the claim is “clearly fraudulent.”

另一项改革涉及要花多少时间收集难民申请个案的相关资料。当一个难民申请被转到IRB后,以收集资料为目的免谈将在15天后进行,而不是原来的先由申请人先按表格填一份资料,并在28天后安排面试。

Another change is the time it will take to gather information on the claimant’s case. An information gathering interview will take place “no sooner than 15 days” after the claim has been referred to the IRB, as opposed to the 28 days it took before with the claimant filling out an information form.

根据新制度,难民申请人在被拒后仍然可以进行“遣返前风险评估”,但是风险评估的时间限制在一年内,在评估期间申请人可以被驱逐出加拿大。

And under the new system, a refugee could still have a “pre-removal risk assessment” done after the final negative decision on their claim, but the risk assessment period is limited to one year and the claimant can be removed from Canada during that process.

肯尼同时宣布,当局计划增加接收和重新安置20%的难民,那意味着加国每年将增加接收2,500名难民。

Kenny also announced planned increases and resettlement of refugees to Canada by 20 per cent. That, according to Kenny, means the resettlement of an additional 2,500 refugees per year.

肯尼指出,来自两个国家的难民申请人尤其能从加国的难民制度改革中受益:那些因为担心迫害而想逃离伊拉克的人,以及想逃离伊朗的异议人士和同性恋者。

The minister pointed to refugee claimants from two countries in particular who he said could benefit from the reforms: Refugees from Iraq who are fleeing persecution, and dissidents, gays and lesbians looking to flee Iran.

根据报告,改革旨在削减来自诸如墨西哥和匈牙利等国家的难民申请人数,这些国家拥有民主选举出的政府,“通常”都追随着国际人权标准。

According to reports, the reforms aim to shrink the number of claims from countries such as Mexico and Hungary, who have democratically-elected governments and “generally” adhere to international human-rights standards.

根据公民和移民部网站有关改革的描述,加拿大的难民系统已经“被不断新增的假难民申请压垮,需要花费数年时间进行调整,”这一切使得政府无法“帮助那些真正需要保护的人士”。

According to the ministry website describing the reforms, Canada’s asylum system has been “crippled by an ever-increasing number of new unfounded claims, and it can take years to deal with them,” bogging down the government’s ability “to help those who truly need…protection.”

据该部称,在2006至2008年间,加拿大的难民申请人数增加了60%。在去年,只有不到一半的难民申请被批准。

According to ministry, between 2006 and 2008 there was a 60 per cent increase in the number of refugee claims made in Canada. Yet last year, fewer than half of the claims were accepted.

由于申请人数多、审批时间长,目前有大约60,000名难民申请人在IRB排队。

The number of claims plus the amount of time it currently takes to render a decision has contributed to a backlog of around 60,000 claims currently pending before the IRB.

根据IRB向《大中报》提供的数据,从1989年至2008年间,除了1995年以外,中国一直是加拿大前十大难民来源国之一。

According to data sent to Chinese News by the IRB, from 1989 to 2008 China was somewhere on the top-ten list of refugee referrals to the IRB every year, with the exception of only 1995.

在2000至2008年间,来自中国的难民申请人每年平均达到1,956人,平均每年有967的中国人获得批准。余下的要么被拒,要么放弃申请,要么还在审理。

Between the years 2000 and 2008, there was an average of 1,956 refugee claims each year from China, with an average of 967 accepted each year. The remaining claims were either denied, abandoned by the claimant, or still pending.

虽然IRB发言人Melissa Anderson未能说明中国难民前来加拿大寻求庇护的具体原因,但她提到难民申请有一些众所周知的、来自中国团体的成员。有报道说这些人的人权被践踏。

While IRB communications officer Melissa Anderson could not provide specific reasons refugees from China seek asylum in Canada, she did talk of members of well-known groups from China that have reportedly had their human rights violated and who have become claimants.

“法轮功就是其中的一个例子。” Anderson称,“我不知道我们接收了多少维吾尔人,但我们看到许多西藏人申请难民。但具体有多少我也说不清。”

“A good example from China would be Falun Gong,” says Anderson. “I don’t know how many Uighurs we get, but we do see Tibetans, that’s a big one. But how many? I can’t say for sure.

美国国务部2008年的一份报告称,中国的“人权纪录仍然很糟糕,在某些地区甚至恶化”。

China’s “human rights record remained poor and worsened in some areas,” according to a 2008 report from the U.S. Department of State.

根据报告,中国政府进一步压制少数民族,并且继续“继续监控、骚扰、拘留、逮捕和监禁记者、作家和辩护律师及其家人,其中许多人是寻求行使中国法律规定的权利。”

According to the report, the Chinese government stepped up its suppression of ethnic minorities and continued to “monitor, harass, detain, arrest and imprison journalists, writers, activists and defense lawyers and their families, many of whom were seeking to exercise their rights under the law.”

编注:英翻中:贾宁扬。Translator (English to Chinese): Jack Jia. 如果你对本文有任何评论,或有任何社区、社会和生活问题需要大中报回答或调查,请将你的评论或问题细节以电话留言(416-504-0761 转215分机),或传真(416-504-4928),或电邮([email protected]),或电邮给Terry Davidson ([email protected])。你可以匿名为本报提供调查线索,但调查线索应包括当事人的联系电话或地址、发生问题的时间及地址等信息。

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